What is AGILE?

Agile software development refers to a group of software development methodologies based on iterative development, where requirements and solutions evolve through collaboration between self-organizing cross-functional teams. Agile methods or Agile processes generally promote a disciplined project management process that encourages frequent inspection and adaptation, a leadership philosophy that encourages teamwork, self-organization and accountability, a set of engineering best practices intended to allow for rapid delivery of high-quality software, and a business approach that aligns development with customer needs and company goals. Agile development refers to any development process that is aligned with the concepts of the Agile Manifesto. The Manifesto was developed by a group fourteen leading figures in the software industry, and reflects their experience of what approaches do and do not work for software development. Read more about the Agile Manifesto.

Source: What is AGILE? | What is SCRUM? | Agile FAQ’s | cPrime

What is AGILE? was last modified: January 29th, 2018 by Jovan Stosic

How To Build A Mobile App Requirements Document

Business Requirements

Business requirements are criteria that are necessary to meet organizational objectives. Typically they outline how the product or solution will address the needs of the company and/or its users.

These considerations are commonly included when mapping out business requirements for a mobile app requirements document:

  • What is the purpose of the app or product? What are you trying to accomplish?
  • What is the current problem(s) it will solve?
  • How will it streamline or improve the current process or facilitate a new process?
  • What is the product vision?
  • What aspects are already in place? What needs to be added? Will the app need to be started from scratch or can you leverage existing assets?
  • What should the app be able to do (ie. functionality)?
  • What features will it need?
  • What is the monetization or business model?
  • Are there branding and design guidelines that need to be followed?
  • Is the ask feasible?

Product & Technical Requirements

Screen Shot 2016-03-28 at 3.55.13 PM

Source: Jordan Goms via Slideshare

Product and technical requirements outline the systemic and technical needs in order for the product to achieve the desired features and functionalities.

The following should be determined within the product/technical specifications for your mobile app requirements document:

  • What platforms will the app be built for (iOS, Android, etc)?
  • What should operating system versions support it?
  • What are your current services, servers, databases?
  • What are your maintenance needs? Do you need to support it for the future?
  • How long should the app function before an overhaul is needed?
  • Do you have current API/services documentation?
  • Do you have current Apple, Google, or other developer accounts/credentials?
  • Do you have existing provisioning profiles?
  • Are there other credentials that are needed or already exist (analytics systems, platforms, etc.)?


Dependencies are any aspect that the product or product team relies on in order to meet objectives. These may include:

  • Hardware that the app will run on/communicate with (for example, beacons)
  • Service/API documentation
  • Profile/account/platform credentials
  • Any third-party software your app relies on
  • Any flowcharts, documents, or information related to the product



Source: Lean Startup 101 via Slideshare

In the early stages of a project, there are assumptions about the product that we believe to be true based on knowledge, experience, or current information. Typically, these include:

  • Assumptions about the user (for example, X% of users will see enough value in the product to become regular users)
  • Technical assumptions (for example, technical requirement A will work on the latest operating system)
  • Business assumptions (for example, we can develop the product in proposed time frame)


Constraints are the limitations that teams must work within, typically scope, budget, and time. However, they may also include aspects like risk tolerance, resources/staff, and quality requirements.


Your mobile app requirements document should include all technical assets and information required for app store submission. Defining these requirements early will significantly expedite the submission process when the product is ready for release. While these will vary depending on the app stores being submitted to, below are the assets and information to include for Apple App Store and Google Play.

Recommended: How To Submit An App To The App Store

General Assets

  • Icons of supported sizes (iOS: @1x @2x @3x images | Android: mdpi, hdpi, xhdpi, xxhdpi)
  • Splash screens of supported sizes (iOS: @1x @2x @3x images | Android: mdpi, hdpi, xhdpi, xxhdpi)
  • Screenshots in correct sizes, in required languages
  • App descriptions in required languages
  • Search keywords in required languages
  • List of supported devices and OS versions

Apple App Store

  • iTunes Connect Account access
  • Company/Entity Name
  • App Store app listing name
  • Search keywords
  • Bundle id / SKU
  • Demo account for reviewers
  • Description
  • Support URL
  • Marketing URL
  • Privacy policy
  • App category
  • Copyright information
  • Contact information
  • App icon (1024×1024)
  • App Store distribution provision profile
  • App Store distribution code signing identity
  • Screenshots (correct sizes based on devices)

Google Play

  • Google Play Developer access
  • Store listing name
  • Paid/free
  • Short description
  • Full description
  • App icon (512×512)
  • Feature Graphic (1024×500)
  • App type
  • App category
  • Content Rating
  • Contact Email
  • Privacy Policy
  • Screenshots (correct sizes based on devices)

Things to Keep in Mind

Above we’ve gone through some of the aspects to include for your mobile app requirements document. When you’re crafting your requirements, you’ll also want to keep the following tips and considerations top of mind:

  • Requirements documents can (and probably should) be high-level, as it’s likely the product will change and evolve as new information and learnings become available
  • Be wary of too much detail. While this may seem counter-intuitive, you want to ensure that your product requirements document allows for a degree of flexibility. Intricately detailed documents that are drawn out before engineering begins will most likely need to be changed as the project progresses, which results in wasted time and resources
  • Also be wary of too little detail. A product requirements document shouldn’t be underspecified. Make sure that all important areas are covered. Run the document by the development team to ensure that nothing is overlooked
  • Don’t build your requirements without input. Your team has a variety of experience and insight; take advantage of it

The ultimate goal of creating a mobile app requirements document is to provide a foundation for a successful product. Mapping out business and technical requirements, dependencies, constraints, assumptions, and submission assets will give your team the ammunition needed to get your project off the ground. During development, questions are bound to come up, even with the most thorough PRDs. If questions are not answered in the document, make sure you add them in order to avoid any miscommunication.

During the process of defining the product, it is important to always focus on delivering superior value to the marketplace. It is easy to get distracted by competitors, vocal customers, and architectural issues, and you do need to understand those needs, but in defining a good product, always remember to focus on the value.

Source: How To Build A Mobile App Requirements Document

How To Build A Mobile App Requirements Document was last modified: January 29th, 2018 by Jovan Stosic

Verbs | English Grammar | EF


Selecting the correct verb tense and conjugating verbs correctly is tricky in English. Click on the verb tense to read more about how to form this tense and how it is used, or select a time to see the full list of tenses and references on that time.

Present Tenses in English Examples
Simple present tense They walk home.
Present continuous tense They are walking home.
Past Tenses in English
Simple past tense Peter lived in China in 1965.
Past continuous tense was reading when she arrived.
Perfect Tenses in English
Present perfect tense have lived here since 1987.
Present perfect continuous have been living here for years.
Past perfect We had been to see her several times before she visited us.
Past perfect continuous He had been watching her for some time when she turned and smiled.
Future perfect We will have arrived in the States by the time you get this letter.
Future perfect continuous By the end of your course, you will have been studying for five years.
Future Tenses in English
Simple future tense They will go to Italy next week.
Future continuous tense will be travelling by train.
Conditional Tenses in English
Zero conditional If ice gets hot it melts.
Type 1 conditional If he is late I will be angry.
Type 2 conditional If he was in Australia he would be getting up now.
Type 3 conditional She would have visited me if she had had time.
Mixed conditional would be playing tennis if I hadn’t broken my arm.
The -ing forms in English
Gerund I like swimming.
Present participle She goes running every morning.
Passive voice

Source: Verbs | English Grammar | EF

Verbs | English Grammar | EF was last modified: January 24th, 2018 by Jovan Stosic

First, Second, and Third Conditional

This analysis of conditional verb forms was written by Rob De Decker, who teaches English at a Flemish grammar school (equivalent to an American high school) in Schellebelle, Belgium. It is used here with his permission.

Conditional Clause and Main Clause

If I have enough money,
conditional clause    
I will go to Japan.
    main clause
I will go to Japan,
main clause    
if I have enough money
    conditional clause

First, Second, and Third Conditional

1. First conditional: If I have enough money, I will go to Japan.
2. Second conditional: If I had enough money, I would go to Japan.
3. Third conditional: If I had had enough money, I would have gone to Japan.


Conditional clause Main clause
1. If + Present Tense will + inf / present tense / imperative

  1. If you help me with the dishes (if + pres), 
    I will help you with your homework. (will + inf)
  2. If the sum of the digits of a number is divisible by three, 
    the number is divisible by three (Pres. tense)
  3. If you see Mr Fox tonight, tell him I am ill. (imperative).
2. If + Past Tense would + inf
3. If + Past Perfect Tense would have + past participle
We do not normally use will or would in the conditional clause, 
only in the main clause.

Uses of the Conditional

  1. First conditional
    1. Nature: Open condition, what is said in the condition is possible.
    2. Time: This condition refers either to present or to future time.
      e.g. If he is late, we will have to go without him.
      If my mother knows about this, we are in serious trouble.

  2. Second conditional
    1. Nature: unreal (impossible) or improbable situations.
    2. Time: present; the TENSE is past, but we are talking about the present, now.
      e.g. If I knew her name, I would tell you.
      If I were you, I would tell my father.
      Compare: If I become president, I will change the social security system. (Said by a presidential candidate)
      If I became president, I would change the social security system. (Said by a schoolboy: improbable)
      If we win this match, we are qualified for the semifinals.
      If I won a million pounds, I would stop teaching. (improbable)

  3. Third conditional
    1. Nature: unreal
    2. Time: Past (so we are talking about a situation that was not so in the past.)
      e.g. If you had warned me, I would not have told your father about that party.(But you didn’t, and I have).


1. The conditional construction does not normally use will or would in if-clauses. EXCEPTION: If will or would express willingness, as in requests, they can be used in if-clauses.

e.g. If you will come this way, the manager will see you now.
I would be grateful if you would give me a little help.
(= ± please, come this way; please, give me…)

2. For the second conditional, were replaces was:

If I were a rich man…

3. After if, we can either use “some(-one, -where…)” or “any(-one, -where…).

If I have some spare time next weekend….or : 
If I have any spare time…

4. Instead of if not, we can use unless.

e.g. I’ll be back tomorrow unless there is a plane strike.
He’ll accept the job unless the salary is too low.

5.There is a “mixed type” as well, for the present results of an unreal condition in the past:

If + Past Perfect – would + inf.
If you had warned me [then], I would not be in prison [now].



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Source: First, Second, and Third Conditional

First, Second, and Third Conditional was last modified: January 24th, 2018 by Jovan Stosic

Marilyn Horne – Wikipedia

Marilyn Horne (born January 16, 1934) is an American mezzo-soprano opera singer. She specialized in roles requiring beauty of tone, excellent breath support, and the ability to execute difficult coloratura passages. She is a recipient of the National Medal of Arts(1992) and the Kennedy Center Honors (1995). She has won four Grammy Awards.


Marilyn Horne – Wikipedia was last modified: January 24th, 2018 by Jovan Stosic