Giacomo Meyerbeer – Wikipedia

Giacomo Meyerbeer[n 1] (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century.[1] With his 1831 opera Robert le diable and its successors, he gave the genre of grand opera ‘decisive character’.[2]Meyerbeer’s grand opera style was achieved by his merging of German orchestra style with Italian vocal tradition. These were employed in the context of sensational and melodramatic libretti created by Eugène Scribe and were enhanced by the up-to-date theatre technology of the Paris Opéra. They set a standard which helped to maintain Paris as the opera capital of the nineteenth century.

Giacomo Meyerbeer – Wikipedia was last modified: January 15th, 2018 by Jovan Stosic

GPRS core network – Wikipedia

Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN)Edit

The gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) is a main component of the GPRS network. The GGSN is responsible for the internetworking between the GPRS network and external packet switched networks, such as the Internet or an X.25 network.

From an external network’s point of view, the GGSN is a router to a “sub-network”, because the GGSN ‘hides’ the GPRS infrastructure from the external network. When the GGSN receives data addressed to a specific user, it checks if the user is active. If it is, the GGSN forwards the data to the SGSN serving the mobile user, but if the mobile user is inactive, the data is discarded. In the other direction, mobile-originated packets are routed to the right network by the GGSN.

The GGSN is the anchor point that enables the mobility of the user terminal in the GPRS/UMTS networks. In essence, it carries out the role in GPRS equivalent to the home agent in Mobile IP. It maintains routing necessary to tunnel the protocol data units (PDUs) to the SGSN that services a particular MS (mobile station).

The GGSN converts the GPRS packets coming from the SGSN into the appropriate packet data protocol (PDP) format (e.g., IP or X.25) and sends them out on the corresponding packet data network. In the other direction, PDP addresses of incoming data packets are converted to the GSM address of the destination user. The readdressed packets are sent to the responsible SGSN. For this purpose, the GGSN stores the current SGSN address of the user and his or her profile in its location register. The GGSN is responsible for IP address assignment and is the default router for the connected user equipment (UE). The GGSN also performs authentication and charging functions.

Other functions include subscriber screening, IP pool management and address mapping, QoS and PDP context enforcement.

With LTE scenario the GGSN functionality moves to SAE gateway (with SGSN functionality working in MME).

Serving GPRS support node (SGSN)Edit

The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) is the node that is serving the MS/UE. The SGSN supports GPRS and/or UMTS. The SGSN keeps track of the location of an individual MS/UE and performs security functions and access control. The SGSN is connected to the GERAN base station system through the Gb or Iu interface and/or to the UTRAN through the Iu interface. A SGSN is responsible for the delivery of data packets from and to the mobile stations within its geographical service area. Its tasks include packet routing and transfer, mobility management (attach/detach and location management), logical link management, and authentication and charging functions. The location register of the SGSN stores location information (e.g., current cell, current VLR) and user profiles (e.g., IMSI, address(es) used in the packet data network) of all GPRS users registered with it.

GPRS core network – Wikipedia was last modified: January 8th, 2018 by Jovan Stosic